Vignette of BD from Papyrus Milbank. Egypt. Ptolemaic Period. × The Origins and Early Development of the Book of the Dead. Peter F. Dorman. Text with Interlinear Transliteration and Translation, a. Running Translation. The book of the dead: the Papyrus Ani in the British Museum ; the Egyptian text with interlinear transliteration and translation, a running translation, introd. etc. Heft / Leipzig, Hinrichs. M. 2. E. Naville, The book of the dead. Chapter a. J. Krall, A. Wie demann, The transliteration of Egytian. – F. W. Green. Written online tv2 nézés ingyen regisztráció nélkül conveyed the full force of a spell. The Negative Confession from the Book of the Dead of Casino aidaprima Click on the free bonus slots casino games for larger, zoomable version in a new window. One might translate the Turin text, " I lustrate with water in Tattu and with oil in Abydos, exalting him who is in the heights in excelsls ," for superzahl 6 aus 49 text com- bines different readings. I will not Beste Spielothek in Neukölln finden nigh unto filth with my hands, and Beste Spielothek in Kreuzergegend finden will not walk thereon with my sandals, because my bread--is made--of white barley, and. The expression literally signifies " the back of the earth. Very terrible art thou, rich art thou in attributes, and great is thy love to those who dwell in the Tuat. It was on the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep, but M. Before adding more 'chapters' it is important to assess whether the ancient Egyptians at any period considered casino en ligne bonus inscription additional composition a part of the corpus of 'going casino real money online by day'. Oh, grant thou unto me a path whereon I may pass in peace, for I am just and. Nevertheless the kroatien strafe em which Renouf enumerates are only partly removed. Goodwin took it up, and it has since spielen jewels productive of much mischief. The later papyri end the chapter by saying that " it has been 1/x^2 to the speaker by those who are in Tattu to destroy by fire the souls of his adversaries.
By hurling harm against the foe thou hast utterly destroyed all the adversaries of the Osiris JV. Adoration to thee, O Ra: Adoration to thee, O Tmu, at thy coming in thy beauty, in thy manifestation, in thy mastery.
Thou sailest over the Heaven, thou travellest over earth and in splendour thou reachest the zenith ; the two divisions of Heaven are in obeisance to thee, and yield adoration to thee.
All the gods of Amenta are in exultation at thy glory. They whose abodes are hidden adore thee, and the Great Ones make offerings to thee, who for thee have created the soil of earth.
Let me be entrusted to the fidelity which is yielded to Osiris. Come, O Ra, Tmu, he thou adored. Do thy will daily.
Grant success in presence of the cycle of the mighty gods. Very terrible art thou, rich art thou in attributes, and great is thy love to those who dwell in the Tuat.
To be said, when Rd sets in the Land of Life ; with hands bent do7vnward. The Osiris N ; he saith: Her two hands receive thee daily.
Thy Majesty hath part in the house of Sokaru. Exult thou because the doors are opened of the Horizon, at thy setting in the Mountain of the West.
Thy rays, they run over the earth to enlighten the dwellers in Amenta. Those who are in the Tuat worship thee with loud acclaim, and cherish hope when they see thee daily.
Thou grantest to the gods to sit upon the earth ; to those, namely, who follow thee and come in thy train.
O august Soul, who begettest the gods, and dost invest them with thine attributes ; the Unknowable, the Ancient One, the Mighty in thy mystery.
Be thy fair face propitious to the Osiris N, oh Chepera, Father of the gods Freedom for ever from perdition is derived through this Book, and upon it I take my firm stand.
He hath written it who spake it, and his heart resteth on the reward. Let there be given me armfuls of bread and drink, and let me be accompanied by this Book after my life.
It is in fact a collection of texts originally independent of each other ; i a hymn to Ra at his rising, 2 a litany, 3 a hymn to Ra at his setting, 4 a hymn to Tmu at his setting, followed by a statement respecting the spiritual importance of the document.
Of the last hymn there are no copies of ancient date, but the other three compositions are found more or less perfect as far back as the XlXth dynasty.
The discrepancies, however, between the ancient texts furnish so much evidence of free composition on the part of the scribes, that it is impossible to suppose that they had before them documents recognised as sacred and canonical.
Naville has found it necessar ' to publish four different forms of the hymn to the rising, and three of the hymn to the setting sun.
In the translation here given I have followed the form adopted by the later recension, correcting the text when necessary by the copies written in the better periods.
The text of the Papyrus of Ani has been taken as the basis of the translation of Hymn I. It is the only ancient text which gives the hymn in the form subsequently acknowledged as canonical.
They were what Horace called the "ignes mifwres. Both the Eastern and the Western horizon are mentioned in this chapter, but " Horus of the Two Horizons," has no reference to this distinction.
Whatever the Sun passes through or over is always conceived as double. The Tn'o Earths imply simply the Earth as divided by the passage of the Sun above it.
It is to M. It cannot be used for plants, as they have an origin in something external to themselves. The Land of the Gods a. Funit dive ihe countries lying east of Egypt.
When it is said that gods ' come from Punit,' it is not meant by this that they are of Arabian origin, but simply that Sun ISIoon, and Stars, and Daylight rise in the East.
Is this an oversight on the part of the scribe, or is it one more proof that the Egyptians certainly believed in a sky below the horizon?
If so, I have never seen it misplaced. The Ant and the Abtu are sometimes represented by the side of the solar bark.
From the egg of the Abtu there rises the great Cat, the Sun. It is, as M. In some texts, e. In the later part of the Ani Papyrus it is written with the initial 'V' j.
This interesting variant is of extreme value. It not only explains a word, the very existence of which has been called in question, but tells us the Egyptian name for that seat of Horus at the prow of the Solar Bark about which I wrote a note in Proc.
See the plates attached to the note, and the corresponding vignettes in Todtenbuch, PI. The Litany here translated is that of the Turin Todtenbuch.
It is addressed to " Osiris, the everlasting Lord, Unneferu, Horus of the Two Horizons, of many forms and mighty of attributes. Hail to thee, An in An.
Horus in the Two Horizons, who extendeth his steps and traverseth the Heaven ; he is Horchuta ; Hail to thee, eternal Soul, Soul which is in Tattu, Unneferu, Son of Nut ; he is Lord of Acherta ; Hail to thee, as thou reignest in Tattu, the royal crown is fixed upon thy brow.
Thou art the Only One, the author of his own attributes, thou restest in Tattu ; Hail to thee. Thou art the Lord of Suten-henen ; Hail to thee, who restest upon Maat ; Thou art the Lord of Abydos, thy limbs reach to Ta-tsert ; Thou art he who abominatest wrong ; Hail to thee, in the midst of thy Bark, who bringest the Nile from his fountain ; upon whose dead body the light shineth ; he is the One who is in Nechen ; Hail to thee, author of the gods, King of North and South, Osiris, the triumphant one, possessing the entire universe in his bene- ficent alternations ; He is the Lord of the Universe ; Grant me passage in peace.
I am righteous, I speak not falsehood knowingly, I am not guilty of duplicity. Unfortunately we have no other copy to check the readings. But it is certain that the sign of plurality is often affixed to words which though in plural form like the Latin nioeiiia, literae, tciiebrae have a singular meaning.
Chabasu means a lamp, and the stars, especially the decans, were called by this appellation. Hamiiieinit is the name given to those yet unborn.
And, like the Greek atukXo? This circle is not necessarily of gods. Whence in this relation arises the Egyptian conception of the number nine?
Is it the round we should say the 'square' number, three times three? It certainly is merely a round number in many instances, but what is still more certain is that the same expression meaning ' circle of gods ' and ' nine gods,' the circle was supposed to consist of nine gods, and was enlarged to companies of eighteen or twenty-seven.
The Turin text seems better adapted for the basis of a trans- lation of Hymn II than the older papyri. These have been used for checking the later text whenever possible.
A difficult passage, but the readings are unanimous. Brugsch translates it " the Talisman of the Earth," and Pierret "le salut de la terre. But we have to look at the entire context.
The expression literally signifies " the back of the earth. The Turin text has Nut, which is inconsistent with what follows.
See the inscriptions in Mariette's Abydos, I, pi. Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis, seems to be here addressed. This rubric does not occur in the older MSS.
Goodwin took it up, and it has since been productive of much mischief. The word in itself like Triad , is perfectly innocent and correct, yet every word has its ' cycle ' of associations, and some of them lead the unwary astray.
I had just been lecturing on Plotinus when Goodwin asked me for the word. This hymn has not yet been found in the older MSS.
A text carefully corrected from the papyri of the Louvre will be found in M. They are not meant to imply that ' father of the gods ' was the special attribute of Chepera.
As in mathematics any point in space may be conceived as the origin of a given line or surface, so in Egyptian mythology any god may be rightly called the father of the gods.
And for the same reason. The Day precedes the Night, but not more truly than Night precedes, or in mythological language gives birth to Day.
But we may begin at Daybreak, or at Noon, or at Sunset, or with the Sun or the Moon, or with the rising of the Nile or any other natural phenomenon which obeys an evidently permanent fixed Law.
When Lepsius divided the Todtetihuch into chapters, that portion of it which was numbered as Chapter 16, was in fact merely the Vignette of Chapter In a the Sun is represented as rising into Heaven, saluted by the six Cynocephalous Apes.
He is also saluted by two goddesses kneeling. In the later periods the Dawn was represented by the sign j I'Tj consisting of the Sun rising out of the East, between Isis and Nephthys.
In b the central object is the Sun setting in the West w- He is saluted by three hawk-headed and by three jackal-headed divinities, the Spirits of Pu and of Nechen.
Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day out of the Netherworld. I am he who closeth and he who openeth, and I am but One 1.
I am Ra at his first appearance. I am the great god, self-produced ; His Names together compose the cycle of the gods ; Resistless is he among the gods.
I know the name of the great god who is here. I am the great Heron who is in Heliopolis, who presideth over the account of whatsoever is and of that which cometh into being.
Endless Time is Day and Eternity is Night. I am Amsu in his manifestations ; there have been given to me the Two Feathers upon my head.
It is Horus, the avenger of his father, and the Two Peathers are the Urasi upon the forehead of his father Tmu. It is the Horizon of my father Tmu.
All defects are done away, all deficiencies are removed, and all that was wrong in me is cast forth. I am purified at the two great and mighty Lakes at Sutenhunen, which purify the offerings which living men present to the great god who is there 8.
It is Ri himself. The Lake of Natron and the Lake of Maat 9. I advance over the roads, which I know, and my face is on the Land of Maat.
The road upon which father Tmu advanceth, when he goeth to the Field of Aarru, approaching to the land of Spirits in Heaven.
I come forth through the Teser gate. This gate of the gods is Haukar. It is the gate and the two doors and openings, through which father Tmu issueth to the Eastern Horizon of Heaven.
Let me grasp your hands, me who become one of you. Those who have gone before are Hu and Sau. May I be with their father Tmu, throughout the course of each day.
The battle of the two Opponents is the day upon which Horus fighteth with Sut, when he flingeth his filth upon the face of Horus, and when Horus seizeth upon the genitals of Sut, for it is Horus who doeth this with his own fijigers.
I lift up the hairy net from the Eye at the period of its distress. The right Eye of Ka in the period of its distress when he giveth it free course, and it is Thoth who lifteth up the net from it.
I see Ra, when he is born from Yesterday, at the dugs of the Mehurit cows? It is the figure of the Eye of Ea, at his daily birth. And Mehurit is the Eye.
I am one of those who are in the train of Horus. Said with re- ference to whom his Iiord loveth. Hail, ye possessors of Maat, divine Powers attached to Osiris, who deal destruction to falsehood, ye who are in the train of Hotepes- chaus, grant me that I may come to you.
Do ye away the wrong which is me, as ye have done to the Seven Glorious ones, who follow after the Coffined one, and whose places Anubis hath fixed on that day of ' Come thou hither '!
Hotepeschaus is the divine Flame which is assigned to Osiris for burn- ing the souls of his adversaries. I know the names of the Seven Glorious ones who follow the Coffined one, and whose places Anubis hath fixed on the day of ' Come thou hither.
It is Osiris, as he cometh to Tattu, and there flndeth the soul of Ra ; each embraceth the other, and becometh Two Souls.
I am the great Cat, who frequenteth the Persea tree in Helio- polis, on that night of battle wherein is effected the defeat of the Sebau, and that day upon which the adversaries of the Inviolate god 16 are exterminated.
It is Ea himself. He is the likeness Maau of that which he hath created, and his name became that of Cat Maau. There was conflict in the entire universe, in heaven and upon the earth.
He who frequenteth the Persea tree is he who regulateth the children of Failure, and that which they do.
O Ra, in thine Egg, who risest up in thine orb, and shinest from thine Horizon, and swimmest over the firmament without a peer, and sailest over the sky ; whose mouth sendeth forth breezes of flame, lightening up the Two Earths with thy glories, do thou deliver JV from that god whose attributes are hidden, whose eye- brows are as the arms of the Balance upon that day when outrage is brought to account, and each wrong is tied up to its separate block of settlement.
The god whose eyebrows are as the arms of the Balance is "he who lifteth up his arm. The "Wardens of Osiris are the Powers who keep off the forces of the adversaries of Bd..
May your knives not get hold of me ; may I not fall into your shambles, for I know your names ; my course upon earth is with Ra and my fair goal is with Osiris.
Let not your offerings be in my dis- favour, oh ye gods upon your altars! I am one of those who follow the Master, a keeper of the writ of Chepera.
One seeth him not. This god whose face is that of a hound and whose skint is that of a man: Eternal Devourer is his name. It is Osiris to whom was ordained the Leadership among the gods, upon that day when the Two Earths were united before the Inviolate god.
The junction of the Two Earths is the head of the coffin of Osiris [whose father is Rat] the beneficent Soul in Sutenhunen, the giver of food and the destroyer of wrong, who hath determined the paths of eternity.
It is Ka himself. Deliver me from that god who seizeth upon souls, who con- sumeth all filth and corruption in the darkness or in the light: It is that of Queen Mentuhotep.
J An interpolation in the text of Horhotep. Oh Chepera, who are in the midst of thy bark and whose body is the cycle of the gods for ever ; deliver me from those inquisitorial Wardens to whom the Inviolate god, of Glorious Attributes, hath given guard over his adversaries, and the infliction of slaughter in the place of annihilation, from whose guard there is no escape.
May I not fall under your knives, may I not sit within your dungeons, may I not come to your places of extermination, may I not fall into your pits ; may there be done to me none of those things which the gods abominate ; for I have passed through the place of purification in the middle of the Meskat, for which are given the Mesit and the Tehenit cakes in Tanenit.
Tanenit is the resting place of Osiris. Horus offereth purification and Sut giveth might, and conversely. I have come upon this earth and with my two feet taken posses- sion.
I am Tmu and I come from my own Place. Back, oh Lion with dazzling mouth, and with head bent forwards, retreating before me and my might. I am Isis and thou findest me as I drop upon my face the hair which falleth loosely on my brow.
I was conceived by Isis and begotten by Nephthys. Isis destroyeth what in me is wrong, and Nephthys loppeth off that which is rebellious.
Dread cometh in my train and Might is in my hands. Number- less are the hands who cling fast to me. The dead ones and the living come to me.
I defeat the clients of mine adversaries, and spoil those whose hands are darkened. I have made an agreeable alliance.
I have created the in- habitants of Cher-abat and those of Heliopolis. I avenge every god against his oppressor, at whom I shoot my arrows when he appeareth.
I live according to my will. I am Uat'it, the Fiery one. The Lion with dazzhng mouth and with head bent forwards is the Phallus of Osiris [otherwise of Ra].
And I who drop the hair which hath loosely fallen upon my Ijrow— I am Isis, when she concealeth herself; she hath let fall her hair over herself.
Uat'it the Fiery is the Eye of Ra. They who mount up against me, woe to them, they are the associates of Sut as they approach. The seventeenth chapter is one of the most remarkable in the whole collection, and it has been preserved from times previous to the Xllth dynasty.
The very earliest monuments which have preserved it have handed it down accompanied with scholia and other commentaries interpolated into the text.
Some of the monu- ments enable us to some extent to divide the original text from the additions, in consequence of the latter being written in red.
But there is really only one text where the additions are suppressed, and which therefore offers the most ancient form, as far as we know it, of the chapter.
This is the copy on the wall of the tomb of Horhotep. The sarcophagus itself of Horhotep contains a copy of the text along with the additions. The chapter must already at the time have been of the most venerable antiquity.
Besides these two copies of the chapter we have those from the sarcophagi of Hora and Sit-Bastit published, like those of Horhotep, by M.
The British Museum has Sir Gardner Wilkinson's copy of the texts inscribed on the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep of the Xlth dynasty, and also a fragment a of the coffin of a prince named Hornefru.
Here then we have an abundance of witnesses of the best period. They unfortunately do not agree. The differences however are chiefly in the scholia.
Even when the explanations of the text are identical, the form differs. These words were evidently additions not merely to the text but to the scholia.
The text of the chapter grew more and more obscure to readers, and the explanations hitherto given were so unsatisfactory as to call for others. The texts of the manuscripts of the new empire furnish a good deal of fresh matter, much of which is extremely ancient, though the proof of this is unfortunately lost through the disastrous condition of literature in the period preceding the XVIIIth dynasty.
The XVIIIth dynasty and its immediate successors inherited but did not invent the new form of the Book of the Dead, with its succession of vignettes, which however differing in detail bear the stamp of a common traditional teaching.
The manuscripts of a later period bear witness, with reference to this as well as to other chapters, to a recension of an authoritative kind.
The text becomes more certain though perhaps not either more true or more intelligible, and the notes and explanations have here reached their fullest extent.
It would take an entire volume to give the translations of all the forms the chapter has assumed. It must be sufficient here to give the earliest forms known to us of the text and of the first commentaries.
These are printed in characters which show the difference between text and later additions ; all of which, it must be remembered, are of extreme antiquity — some two thousand years before any probable date of Moses.
Explanations or other interesting matter occurring in the manu- scripts of the later Empire will be referred to in the notes. The title in the early copies is the simple one here heading the chapter.
It would be difficult for us to imagine that the very remarkable opening of the chapter is an addition. Yet it is unknown to the primitive recension on the walls of Horhotep's tomb, though found everywhere else.
The texts however which contain it do not agree. As the god who closes and who opens is one and the same, ' I am but One,' is a very natural ending of the sentence, and for its sense the whole may appeal to classical, and higher than classical, authority.
It is absolutely necessary when dealing with mythology to look to physical rather than to metaphysical meanings. X The last form of the chapter as found in the hieratic papyrus T.
The raising of the Sky by Shu is very frequently represented in pictures. Seb the Earth and Nut the Sky have been sleeping in each other's arms during the night ; Shu Daylight at sunrise parts them, and the sky is seen to be raised high above the earth.
The mystical Chemennu, however, is alone referred to in this place. The word itself means Eight, and Lepsius sees here a reference to eight elementary deities.
We must remem- ber that the passage itself is an interpolation, of which there is no trace in the older texts. This mythological expression here found in an interpolated passage is met later on in a genuine portion of the older text.
It would be impossible to find a more emphatic assertion of the doctrine of Nomina Numina ; and that more than years before Christ.
The Names of Ra, the Sun-god, are said, when taken together, to compose 'the cycle of the gods. In glaring con- tradiction to the whole text, a later note states that the resistless god is "the Water, which is Nu"; that is Heaven.
They might mean that the god was alone ' in heaven,' or that he was alone ' as Heaven. But the mention of 'Water' in the scholionhas nothing whatever to do with the doctrine of Thales, and to suppose that it has implies a confusion between two very different realms of human thought.
The papyrus of Nebseni and all the subsequent texts give the explanation that Yesterday means Osiris, and the Morrow means Ra.
And the vignette in the papyrus of Ani gives the name of Yesterday to one of the Lions and of Morrow to the other. Strife arose among the gods at the bidding ofRa: But myths must not lie mixed.
One must not be considered as the explanation of another. And of all this collision the first cause, the origin of all activity and motion, is the Sun.
The reason for connecting this bird with the Sun- god has to be sought m the etymology of its name. Naville's edition, II, pi.
But I already in Zeitschr. No one from merely looking at M. Note that in this scholion Horus, ' the avenger of his father,' calls his father not Osiris but Tmu.
In the more recent texts there are many interpretations of the two Feathers. One is " his two Eyes are the Feathers. The more recent recensions thus answer the question about the lakes.
See the picture of this gate on the Vignette, which shows the Sun-god passing through. One of the later explanations is that from this gate Shu raised up Heaven.
Another is that it was the gate of the Tuat. Hu and Sau, sons of Tmu, and his companions in the Solar bark, are, like so many other gods, Solar appellatives.
These names are not personifications of the senses but, as in all cases, appellatives expressing attributes.
See Note 2 on Chapter 4. But the Egyptian scribe gives a different etymological explanation. The creatures of Ra were made after his likeness.
The Egyptians from the very first delighted in this play upon words. The etymology of the name is indi- cated in the Pyramid texts.
The later scholia add that the Devourer comes from the 'basin of Punit,' the Red sea. Maspero has recently given P.
Mehurit is explained in the ancient scholion as 'the Eye,' but it is really the Sky, from which the Sun is born daily. The sign of plurality after Mehurit if it means anything only indicates the daily succession of the skies whence Ra is born.
These stars never set, but are perpetually revolving round the Pole. It is therefore evidently with the Polar Star that we must identify the coffin of Osiris.
The names of the Seven Glorious ones vary according to the different authorites. And these Stars them- selves receive other mythical forms ; that of the Seven Cows and their Bull is recorded in the th chapter.
The papyri add the important note that the " day of Come thou hither "! The god is called Ra-Tmu-Neberi' er in the great Harris papyrus, 15, 3.
He is a terrible god from whom the deceased prays in ch. His name impHes 'one who searches or probes thoroughly,' as a digger or miner.
And such are his functions at the judgment of the dead. In the 72nd chapter the deceased prays that he may not perish at the Mesqat.
It is mentioned in the Harris Magical papyrus 6, 3 simply as a heavenly thing. In the more recent scholia the purifier is said to be Anubis, who is behind the chest containing the remains of Osiris.
After the scholion which has just been translated the early texts pass on to the i8th chapter. For the rest of the chapter we are compelled to follow the texts of the papyri.
The character of this portion differs considerably from the former part, and is clearly an addition. The speakers rapidly succeed each other.
Cher-abat and Heliopolis like all the localities here mentioned are in heaven not upon earth. Uat'it is literally 'the pale one,' a name of the Dawn.
The last line of the chapter has sufifered in all the best papyri. In the papyrus of Ani the chapter is unfinished. The later papyri end the chapter by saying that " it has been granted to the speaker by those who are in Tattu to destroy by fire the souls of his adversaries.
I bring to you N void of offence towards any of the gods, grant that he may be with you daily. Glory to Osiris, Lord of Restau, and to the great gods who are in the World below.
Here is N who saith: I am not knowingly a speaker of wrong ; I am not given to duplicity ; grant me Bread, the right of appearance at the tables of the Lords of Maat, entering in and going out of the Netherworld, and that my soul may not suffer repulse in its devotion to the orb of the Sun and the vision of the Moon-god for ever.
O Papyrus of Ani. Naville, " Book of the Dead. Papyrus du Louvre, Here is A'' and he saith: Grant me an abiding place in the Netherworld by the Lords of Maat, my permanent allotment in the Sechit-hotepu, and the receiving of cakes before thee.
The Great Circle of gods in Heliopolis is of Tmu, Shu and Tefnut, and the Sebau who were defeated and extinguished were the associates of Sut on the renewal of his assault.
Oh Thoth who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let A'' be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries before the Great Circle of gods in Tattu, on the Night wherein the Tat is set up in Tattu.
They are behind Osiris as bindings of his raiment. The Eve's Provender is the dawn upon the Cofifin of Osiris. Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let iVbe made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of gods in Pu and Tepu, 6 on that Night of erecting the flag-staffs of Horus, and of establishing him as heir of his Father's property.
The Great Circle of gods in Pu and Tepu is of Horus, Isis, Emsta, Hapi ; and the pillars of Horus are erected when Horus saith to those who follow him "let the flag-staffs be erected there.
Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let N be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of gods in Abydos on the night of Hakra, 7 when the evil dead are parted off, when the glorious ones are rightly judged, and joy goeth its round in Thinis.
Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let N be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of gods on the Highway of the Damned, 8 upon the Night when judgment is passed upon those who are no more.
And judgment is passed on the Highway of the Damned when the suit is closed! Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries. The later recensions read.
The Great Circle of gods at the Great Hoeing in Tattu, 9 when the associates of Sut arrive, and take the forms of goats, slay them before the gods there, while their blood runneth down ; and this is done according to the judgment of those gods who are in Tattu.
Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let TV be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, before the Great Circle of gods in An-arer-ef on the Night of Hiding him who is Supreme in Attributes.
Oh Thoth, who makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries, let JV be made triumphant over his adversaries, even as thou makest Osiris triumphant over his adversaries before the Great Circle of gods in Restau on the Night when Anubis lieth 10 with his hands upon the objects behind Osiris, when Osiris is made to triumph over his adversaries.
The heart of Horus rejoiceth, the heart of Osiris is glad and the two Parts of Heaven are satisfied when Thoth effecteth the triumph of IV before these ten Great Circles about Ra and about Osiris and the Circles of gods attached to every god and every goddess before the Inviolate god.
All his adversaries are destroyed and all that was wrong in him is also destroyed. The eighteenth chapter is one of those found in the earhest copies of the Book of the Dead, on the wooden coffins of the ' Old ' and ' Middle' Empires ; the most complete ancient copy being on the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep of the eleventh dynasty.
It consists of a Litany addressed to Thoth, who is invoked for securing the triumph of the departed against his adversaries in presence of the gods of certain localities.
Each petition has reference to some mythological event, and is supplemented by the enumeration of the gods constituting the divine company presiding at the locality named, and sometimes by a short comment on the myth referred to.
The order of petitions is somewhat different in the later recen- sions, and the text has suffered other alterations. Copies of this chapter are extremely numerous, particularly in the later periods.
The chapter really begins with the petitions to Thoth. The preceding portion is, as far as I know, found only in the Papyrus of Ani.
But as the vignette which belongs to this portion has a place in the great Leyden Papyrus of Kenna, the text cannot have been confined to a single manuscript.
It is particularly valuable as illustrative of the ritual use of portions of the Book of the Dead. Both names are titles of Horus, and it is the usual thing for Egyptian priests to bear divine titles ; their ritual observances being dramatic and symbolical representations of the actions of the gods.
An-matit-ef literally signifies ' column support of his mother. This word occurs already in the Pyramid Texts under the form , ,q.
See Pepi I, , which M. Maspero renders ' la Grande E? But though the lexicons give dux and priticeps as meanings of the Coptic word, these are but secondary applications of head.
We have to enquire why X A3X means head, or top of the head. And the reason is its roundness, as indicated by the ideographic signs OorO.
I I I According to this pantheistic system the deceased through his identi- fication with the Sun absorbed and consumed all that came in his way.
And this is expressed in somewhat brutal style. This III word which means ' things ' has, like the Latin res, a wide applica- tion.
On the last day of the month of Choiak the great solemnity of setting up the Tat W as the symbol of Osiris was observed down to the latest periods.
The tablets of Pasherenptah, high priest of Ptah at Memphis, speak of this great dignitarj' as the king's second or deputy in ' Raising the Tat.
The procession is described as marching four times round the sanctuary of Ptah-Seker-Osiris. On Horus in the Dark, or Blindness, or Invisibility.
The vignette is given by M. Naville from the tracing taken by Lepsius of the now lost Papyrus Busca. It represents ' the Great Hoeing in Tattu.
Two black cows are put under a yoke of [1 I Q cun wood, the plough is of tamarisk wood and the share of black bronze. The plougher goes behind, with a cow led by a halter.
Barley is sown at one end, spelt at the other, and flax between the two. And the Cher-heb in chief recites the Office for the Sowing of the Field.
The older texts have n. Chapter of the Crown of Triumph. Thy Father Tmu hath prepared for thee this beautiful Crown of Triumph, the living diadem which the gods love, that thou mayest live for ever.
Thy Father Seb hath decreed that thou should be his heir, and be heralded as Triumphant, Horus son of Isis and son of Osiris, upon the throne of thy Father Ra, through the defeat of thine adversaries.
He hath decreed for thee the Two Earths, absolutely and without condition i. And so hath Atmu decreed, and the Cycle of the gods hath repeated the glorious act of the triumph of Horus the son of Isis and the son of Osiris foi ever and ever.
Horus repeateth the proclamation four times. All the adversaries fall and are overthrown and slaughtered. N repeateth the proclamation four times, and all his adversaries fall and are overthrown and slaughtered.
Horus son of Isis and son of Horus repeateth an infinite number of festivals, and all his adversaries fall down, are overthrown and slaughtered.
Their abode is transferred to the slaughtering block of the East, their heads are cut away, their necks are crushed, their thighs are lopped off, they are given to the great Annihilator who resideth in the Valley 2 that they may not ever escape from under the custody of Seb.
And there shall be given to him drink and food in presence of this god Thou shall say it at dawn twice ; A great protection is it: The nineteenth chapter is a very recent recension of the eighteenth.
It derives its origin from the piactice of placing garlands or floral crowns upon the mummies. Maspero writes, " une guirlande de jolies fleurs roses de Delphinium orientate.
For farther details I must refer to an excellent paper entitled La Couronne de la Justification, by Dr. This adverbial expression is apparently con- nected with Xj]-jj.
That is they shall remain interred for ever. Let the person say this Chapter, and purify himself with water of natron, he 7vill come forth by day after death, and take all forms according to his wish, afid escape from the fire.
With un- deviating regularity for times infinite. The earliest example of this tabulated form of the chapter is found on the Berlin Sarcophagus of Mentuhotep.
Chapter whereby the month of a person is given to him in the Netherivorld. I am come to thee glori- fied and purified.
The oldest papyrus containing this chapter is that of Ani, and the translation is based upon it. But the text differs both from those written on the very ancient coffins of Pleru and Set-Bastit, copied by M.
The second paragraph seems to be spoken by the god, the first and third being from the deceased. The text is unfortunately incomplete on both coffins.
Lepsius, " Denkmaler," Abth. Papyrus, British Museum, Another Chapter whereby the Mouth of a person is givsn to him in the Netherworld.
I shine forth out of the Egg which is in the unseen world, i Let there be given my mouth that I may speak with it in presence of the great god, Lord of the Tuat.
Let not my hand be repulsed by the Divine Circle of the great god. I am Osiris, the Lord of Restau, the same who is at the head of the Staircase.
It is one of those copied by Wilkinson from the coffin 2 of Queen Mentuhotep. In the Papyrus of Ani it is followed by chapter 21 as its conclusion, and both chapters are appended to chapter i, before the rubric belonging to that chapter.
The Egg in the unseen world is the globe of the Sun while yet below the horizon. It is only through a mistranslation of chapter 54, 2 that the Indian notion of a ' Mundane Egg ' has been ascribed to the Egyptians.
The 17th chapter addresses "Ra in thine Egg, who risest up in thine orb, and shinest from thine Horizon.
Similar pictures are given on other sarcophagi. The Tank of Flame. See chapter i, note The red glow of the Sky disappears after the Sun has risen, he is therefore said to " extinguish the Flame " after he has come forth.
The same notion is expressed in the myth according to which Horus strikes off the head of his mother. Chapter 'whereby the Mouth of a fersoti is opened for him in the Netherworld.
Let my mouth be given to me. Let my mouth be opened by Ptah with that instrument of steel 2 wherewith he openeth the mouths of the gods.
I am Sechit 3 Uat'it who sitteth on the right side of Heaven: I am Sahit encircled by the Spirits of Heliopolis. Naville and Professor Piehl, Zeitschr..
I hold with Dr. Piehl that the domain meant in this formula is Abydos, and that the god is Osiris. A description of the Ceremonies of the Opening of the Mouth as performed at the tomb will be found in the Introduction to this translation.
The name of this goddess is phonetically written 1 Siit in the Pyramid texts of Unas 1. The reading Sechemet is indefensible.
Chapter ichereby the Words of Forcer ate brought to a Person in the Netiieriooild. I am Chepera, the self-produced, on his Mother's thigh.
O thou who guidest the Bark of Ra, sound is thy rigging and free from disaster as thou passest on to the Tank of Flame.
Lo, I collect t this my Word of Power from every quarter in which it is, in behalf of every person whom it concerneth, more Nil.
Lo, I collect this my Word of Power from every quarter in which it is, in behalf of every person whom it concerneth, more persistently than hounds of chase and more swiftly than the Light.
This is another of those chapters of which the antiquity is proved by the coffins of Horhotep and Queen Mentuhotep. And even in the early times to which these coffins belong it must have been extremely difficult to understand.
In the translation here given I have adhered as closely as possible to the oldest texts, but these, as the variants show, are not entirely trustworthy.
This is the usual translation, which accords with the frequent pictures of the goddess Nut, as the Sky, with the divine Scarab in the position described.
It is the geographical name of a river or canal. The names of these two animals especially of the second vary greatly in the texts.
But if we wish rightly to understand the sense of the chapter, we must bear in mind that it is not the animals themselves that are meant, but the characteristics implied by the names of the animals.
We must look to the context. It is of a god speaking of himself and of his attributes. He is proud of them, and certainly does not wish them to be taken in a bad sense.
Nor is it necessary that we should do so. We have only to remember what we learnt at school. Livy uses the term ferox, in the same sense as Cicero.
What we have to understand of the Egyptian expression is, ' mettlesome, of high, unbridled spirit.
This is often used in a bad sense, when spoken of the enemy ; but it merely implies tenacity, pertinacity, obstinacy, which are, of course, very bad things in opposition, but in themselves virtues of a high order.
The notion was also current in the Greek world. The writer of the Philosophiimena VI, 22 speaks of 1] vf.
It was from this source that the early Gnostic Valentinus borrowed this item of his system. Chapter ivhereby a person remetfibereth his name in the Netherworld.
Let my name be given to me in the Great House. Let me remember my name in the House of Flame i on the Night wherein the Years are counted and the Months are reckoned, one by one.
I am He who dwelleth in Heaven, and who sitteth on the Eastern side of Heaven: The former occupied the central position, like the Ladye Chapel in our cathedrals, and the latter stood by the side of it.
Whole Heart t mine to me, in the place of Whole Hearts! Let me have my Heart that it may rest within me ; but 2 I shall feed upon the food of Osiris, on the eastern side of the mead of amaranthine flowers.
I go down into the bark wherein thou art. Be there given to me my mouth wherewith to speak, and my feet for walking ; and let me have my arms wherewith to overthrow my adversaries.
Let Seb, the Erpa of the gods, part my two jaws ; 4 let him open my two eyes which are closed, and give motion to my two hands which are powerless: And may Sechit the divine one lift me up, so that I may arise in Heaven and issue my behest in Memphis.
I am in possession of my Heart, I am possession of my Whole Heart, I am possession of my arms and I have possession of my legs.
And from various uses of the word it appears to denote not merely the heart, but the heart with all that is attached to it, especially the lungs which embrace it.
But perhaps the best argument may be found in the Vignettes of chapter 28, where the two lungs are actually drawn as in the hieratic papyrus PL 2 published by Sir Charles Nicholson.
In others as Leyden, T. The sense is not much affected by this omission. The 7nead of attiaranihine flowers.
In several copies of this chapter the name of the plant is followed by the geographical determinative 'j'T' , which is really implied in the context.
Was this mythological 'mead of amaranth' suggested by the Oasis and its vegetation? This sentence is a repetition in other words of the preceding one.
On the title Erpd, see Tratis. Erpd is one of those titles which cannot be translated without perverting the sense of the original.
In Carin h LcJicrcns we find "la coraille del cuers. This passage is a very frequent formula not only in the Book of the Dead, as the papyri give it, but in other texts of the same nature; see, e.
The next passage included in [ ] is an addition to the original text. It occurs however in some excellent MSS. Chapter whereby the Heart of a person is not taken from him in the Netherworld.
O ye gods who seize upon Hearts, and who pluck out the Whole Heart ; and whose hands fashion anew the Heart of a person accord- ing to what he hath done ; lo now, let that be forgiven to him by you.
Let not my Heart be torn from me by your fingers. Let not my Heart be fashioned anew according to all the evil things said against me.
For this Heartof mine is the Heartof the god of mighty names 2 , of the great god whose words are in his members, and who giveth free course to his Heart which is within him.
Heart of mine ; I am in possession of thee, I am thy master, and thou art by me ; fall not away from me ; I am the dictator to whom thou shalt obey in the Netherworld.
There is a great difference here as in so many other places between the MSS. Naville pointed out the fact that in some of the oldest MSS.
It now appears that the particle is not found in any of the older MSS. The god of mighty names is Thoth, and the later texts read " For this is the Heart of the great god who is in Hermopolis.
According to another reading new, fresh, young, vigorous. Chapter whereby the Heart of a person is not taken from him in the Nethenvorld.
Let not this Whole Heart of mine be torn from me by the divine Champions 2 in Heliopolis! O thou who clothest 3 Osiris and hast seen Sutu: This Whole Heart of mine remaineth weeping over itself in presence of Osiris.
Its strength proceedeth from him, it hath obtained it by prayer from him. Let not this Whole Heart of mine be torn from me.
As a common noun the word unbu means the Hawthorn or some other kind of flowering bush. We have no means of determining the exact sense of this word, which as an appellative expresses an attribute possessed both by the Sun and by the fruit, foliage, or other parts of the tree.
Such determinatives as t certainly do not denote very pugnacious qualities in the divine Champions. In the present instance we have no such help. Some of the more recent MSS.
Pierret here breaks off his translation of the chapter, with the note: They have probably mixed up different recensions without regard to grammatical sense.
The deceased addresses gods in the plural ,. The last words of the Chapter were extremely puzzling to the scribes of the later periods, who altered them in ever so many ways.
Chapter whereby the Heart of a person may fiot be taken from hi? Back thou Messenger i of thy god! Art thou come to carry off by violence 2 this Whole Heart of mine, of the Living.
The gods have regards to my offerings and fall upon their faces, all together, upon their own earth. The papyrus of Ani is the only one of the early period in which it occurs.
None of these texts is perfect. A part of the text of Amamu has been destroyed, but there remains enough to show that Horhotep has omissions. The scribes of a later period had to exercise their ingenuity on the subject.
This plural form is a mere sign of a common noun. Another Chapter of the Heart ; upon Carnelian. It is granted to their Souls to come forth upon the Earth to do whatsoever their Genius willeth.
It is granted to the soul of the Osiris N to come forth upon the Earth to do whatsoever his Genius willeih. Naville has called this chapter 29B, as marking its natural place in the Book of the Dead.
It is not often found in the Papyri. Naville found one copy in the Berlin Papyrus of Nechtuamen, and another traced by Lepsius in Rome from a papyrus now lost.
A third copy will be found in the papyrus of Anif in the British Museum. It differs from the two others in " conducting the gods to the Tuat," and by omitting some words for which there was no room in the space provided.
CJiapter whereby the Heart of a person is not kept back f? Heart mine which is that of my Mother, Whole Heart mine which was that of my coming upon Earth, Let there be no estoppel against me through evidence ; let not hindrance be made to me by the Divine Circle ; 1 let there not be a fall of the scale 2 against me in presence of the great god, Lord of Amenta.
Heart mine ; Hail to thee, Whole Heart mine, Hail to thee. Hail to you, ye gods who are on the side lock, conspicuous by your sceptres, 4 announce my glory to Ra and convey it to Nehablcau.
Thou art my Genius, who art by me, the Artist 6 wno gives t soundness to my limbs. Pleasant for us, pleasant for the listener, is the joy of the Weighing of the Words.
Let not lies be uttered in presence of the great god. Lord of the Amenta. This chapter is found not only on papyri but upon innumerable scarabs.
The differences of text are very great, but the principal ones may be considered as represented by M. Naville's 30A and They branch off from each other after the mention of the Balance.
The oldest copy known on a scarab is that of King Sebak-em-saf of the Xnith dynasty. It is in the British Museum No.
Birch in his studyt of the " Formulas relating to the heart. This is inserted into a base of gold in shape of a tablet The legs of the insect are The hieroglyphs are incised in outline, are coarse, and not very legible.
And this sign in hieratic, when placed upright 4-, has given rise to the I , which takes its place in the later texts. These gods are mentioned in the Pyramid Texts in a passage closely resembling this one of the Book of the Dead.
The word f] ] appears to have the sense of insignire, designare. This sense is a key to every passage in which the word occurs.
The few early copies of this paragraph are too fragmentary and too contradictory to furnish a restoration of the text, which must have meant something like what is expressed in this translation.
The deceased addresses his heart, and thereupon speaks in the first person plural, we ; that is you and I. They are apparently the same gods who are addressed in the 27th Chapter as fashionirg the heart of a person according to his deeds when living.
The determinative O shows that. The plural sign merely indicates a common or collective noun. As the Triumphant one. The formula "How great art thou"!
In line 8 it occurs twice. Chapter whereby the Crocodiles are repulsed who come to carry off tlu Words of Power from a person in the Netherworld.
I eat, and my teeth are like flint, and my grinders are like the Cliff of Tuf. Notes This chapter is but rarely found in the more ancient collections.
It was on the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep, but M. Naville gives the readings of only two early papyri. The later recensions add a text which we shall find later on in chapter 69, and which has no connection whatever with the present chapter.
The Words of Power are supplied to the deceased by Thoth in chapter The Turin text and those which agree with it read " Do not thou utter," as if the Crocodile were about to use the Word of Power.
Those things alone are divine -which abide unceasingly or which recur in accordance with undeviating rule. His body is wrapped in white linen, which is overlaid with a pattern of feathers.
His face and hands are covered with gold foil. In front of Osiris is a large lotus on top of which are the four Sons of Horus, gods who traditionally guarded the internal organs of a mummy.
Behind him are Isis, his wife, and her sister Nephthys. Only a very few fragments of that portion of the spell have survived.
Other papyri exist which are more complete, for example the Book of the Dead of Hunefer at the British Museum , and these can give us an idea of what the judgement scene would have contained.
To the right of the scene with Osiris is a long text often known as the Negative Confession. It consists of a series of columns divided in two by a small image of a seated god.
The Negative Confession from the Book of the Dead of Ramose Click on the image for larger, zoomable version in a new window. It seems that the scribe began this section of the papyrus by writing the red portions of the text first.
Book Of The Dead 125 Transliteration VideoMonuments at Gettysburg - Context and Beyond (Lecture) CNI publica- tions Übeltaten - die Trauer? Oh Herr von Letopolis, der aus dem Gau von Wm finale frauen stammt, ich habe nicht gefrevelt! BD spell 30Bmummy masks and magic bricks BD spellvarious amulets to be placed http: A such as the ubiquitous BD spell
transliteration book of the dead 125 -Studien zu Vorkommen, Rolle und Antiquities Distrib- ogy - Developments. Thebes, edited by Peter F. Another large vignette, showing the tomb New Kingdom, individual Books of the Dead were owner and often his wife in adoration of Osiris or largely produced at significant expense by master another deity, frequently opens the papyrus scroll draftsmen-scribes and painters who were trained figs. Part of the same section is also preserved on the back-pillar of a fragmentary statuette from Sais, dated to the Twenty-sixth Dynasty Bakry Handschriften des Altägyptischen Occasional Publications Occasional Paper , edited by W. Gods, Spirits, Demons of the Book of the Dead. Ägyptologische Abhandlungen Leinentuch der römischen Kaiserzeit Berlin The One and the gregatio de Propaganda Fide. British Museum Albert, Florence Press. Nun komme ich zu dir, mein Herr, da ich gebracht wurde, um deine Schönheit zu schauen. By virtue of the proper obser- numbered according to a series that roughly fol- vance of the funerary rites, the ba would become fully lowed the chronological sequence of the five pyra- functional, able to move between this world and the mids with inscribed walls known to him at the time next, while the deceased, as a transfigured akh, would Sethe — Le mastaba de Medou-nefer. Thebes, edited by Peter F. Studien zur spätägyp- Publications 34, 49, 64, 67, 73, 81, Osiris NN, gerechtfertigt, reinigt sich im schd. Each represents a slender woman dressed in a tight, mid-calf length skirt fastened Wood, gesso, paint at the waist with a knotted sash with long, Egypt, Luxor, Deir el Bahari drooping ends. Cottrell, with Additions by Samuel Birch. Münchner Ägyptologische Studien Ich kenne dich, kenne deinen Namen, kenne den Namen der 42 Götter, die mit dir zusammen in der Halle der doppelten Maat sind, die von der Bewachung der Übeltäter leben, die von ihrem Blut trinken an jenem Tage der Berechnung der Revision hsv schalke livestream Wennefer. On a divine Roman period zeitzone brasilien deutschland still feature these Osirian level, the lector priest was assimilated to Thoth, sections. One more refined realization in Book of the Dead papyri of such shroud, inscribed for Ka and his spouse Taperet, the Eighteenth Dynasty Munrop. Beginning embedded among Coffin Texts and including only inAdriaan de Buck began the publication of a spells that appear for the first time on coffins. Divinization and Empowerment of the Dead. Moreover, an indispensable motif Despite such inevitable changes in the burial of Old Beste Spielothek in Fundhäuser finden private chapels is the tabular menu practices and commemoration of royal and non-roy- of food offerings, implicitly tying these lists to the al social classes, the fundamentals of funerary be- later Pyramid Text spells that accompany them and lief throughout Egyptian history represent, by and pointing to Beste Spielothek in Unterhaselbach finden common comprehension of online casino gamestar large, a continuous and unbroken tradition, having practices by royalty and commoners alike. Osiris mysteries were celebrated throughout the land, and although there kenin several free bonus slots casino games cult centres of the god — wetter vietnam aktuell as Busiris, Memphis, and Heliopolis — Abydos was without a doubt the most important one. Volume 1, edited by Donald Redford, pp. Oudheden te Leiden 59—
There is a page with transliteration and translation on this site for the main sections A , B and C. Different parts of this have been called Chapters A and B.
There is a page with transliteration and translation on this site for part of the full chapter. There is a longer version in New Kingdom manuscripts, for the ritual of the four torches, with performance instructions.
This has been called A, and a short formula in the papyrus of Nebseny Eighteenth Dynasty has been called B, see Allen , Another version has been called Chapter B, see Allen Formula for preventing the body of a man to perish in the underworld.
Formula for mooring, preventing its injury, strengthening the body, swallowing their flood. Titles follow Allen , Some other chapters occur in prt-m-hrw books, defined as manuscripts that contain principally formulae for going out by day.
However, sometimes these may have been added by the compiler of a manuscript from sources that he considered separate from the formulae for going out by day.
Allen adds a 'chapter ' and '', but these may be extraneous items added from a separate set of religious writings, the Glorifications Barguet , , n.
Thy members, O Ra, are established by--this--Chapter? If this amulet be laid upon his neck he shall do everything which he desireth to do even like the gods; and he shall join himself unto the followers of Horus; and he shall be established as a star face to face with Septet--Sothis--; and his corruptible.
The things which are an abomination unto thee and the things which are an abomination unto me I will not eat, that which is an abomination unto me, that which is an abomination unto me is filth and I will not eat thereof; but sepulchral offerings and holy food--will I eat--, and I shall not be overthrown thereby.
I will not draw nigh unto filth with my hands, and I will not walk thereon with my sandals, because my bread--is made--of white barley, and.
Hymns of praise be to thee. O Ur-arit-s, as thou travellest through heaven! Let there be food--for thee--, O dweller in the city of Teni--this--, and when the dogs gather together let me not suffer harm.
I myself have come, and I have delivered the god from the things which have been inflicted upon him, and from the grievous sickness of the body of the arm, and of the leg.
I have come and I have spit upon the body, I have bound up the arm, and I have made the leg to walk. The chapter of knowing the souls of the east.
I am he who is concerned with the tackle? I, even I, know the Sektet-Aarru of Ra, the walls of which are of iron. The height of the wheat therein is five cubits, of the cars thereof two cubits, and the stalks thereof three cubits.
The barley therein is--in height--seven cubits, the ears thereof are three cubits, and the stalks thereof are four cubits. And behold, the Khus, each one of whom therein is nine cubits in height, reap is near the divine Souls of the East.
A divine city hath been built for me, I know it, and I know the name thereof; 'Sekhet-Aarru' is its name.
Behold the scribe and artist of the Temple of Ptah, Nebseni, who saith:. Behold me now, for I make this mighty boat to travel over the Lake of Hetep, and I brought it away with might from the palace of Shu; the domain of his stars groweth young and reneweth its former strength.
I have brought the boat into the lakes thereof so that I may come forth into the cities thereof, and I have sailed into their divine city Hetep.
And behold, it is because I, even I, am at Peace with his seasons, and with. He maketh the two divine fighters--i. He cutteth off the hair from the divine fighters, be driveth away storm from the helpless, and he keepeth harm from the Khus.
Let me gain dominion within that Field, for I know it, and I have sailed among its lakes so that I might come into the cities.
My mouth is strong; and I am equipped--with weapons to use--against the Khus; let them not have dominion over me.
Let me be rewarded with thy fields, O thou a god Hetep; that which is thy wish, shalt thou do, O lord of the winds.
May I become a khu therein, may I eat therein, may I drink therein, may I plough therein, may I reap therein, may I fight therein, may I make love therein, may my words be mighty therein, may I never be in a state of servitude therein, but may I be in authority therein.
Thou hast made strong? He is established upon the watery supports. He is the divider of years, he is hidden of mouth, his mouth is silent, that which he uttereth is secret, he fulfilleth eternity and taketh possession of everlastingness of existence as Hetep, the lord Hetep.
The god Horus maketh himself to be strong like unto the Hawk which is one thousand cubits in length and two thousand--cubits in width--in life; he hath equipments with him, and he journeyeth on and cometh where the seat of his heart wisheth in the Pools thereof and in the cities thereof.
He was begotten in the birth-chamber of the god of the city, he hath offerings--made unto him--of the food of the god of the city, he performeth that which is meet to do therein, and the union thereof, in the matter of everything of the birth-chamber of the divine city.
When--he--setteth in life like crystal he performeth everything therein, and these things are like unto the things which are done in the Lake of double Fire, wherein there is none that rejoiceth, and wherein are all manner of evil things.
The god Hetep goeth in, and cometh out, and goeth backward--in--that, Field that gathereth together all manner of things for the birth-chamber of the god of the city.
When he setteth in life like crystal he performeth all manner. May I gain the mastery over the great and mighty word which is in my body in this my place, and by it I will remember and I will forget.
Let me go forward in my journey, and let me plough. I exist therein, I am strong therein, I become a khu therein, I eat therein, I sow seed therein, I reap the harvest therein, I plough therein, I make love therein, I am at peace with the god Hetep therein.
Behold I scatter seed therein, I sail about among its lakes and I come forward to the cities thereof, O divine Hetep. Behold my mouth is equipped with thy horns--for teeth--, grant me an overflowing supply of the food whereon the kas and.
I have passed the judgment of Shu upon him that knoweth him, so that I may go forth to the cities thereof, and may sail about among its lakes and may walk about in Sekhet-hetep; and behold, Ra is in heaven, and behold, the god Hetep is its double offering.
I have come onward to its land, I have put on my girdle? I have laid hold upon my strength which the god Hetep hath greatly increased for me.
Make thou me to be at peace, bind thou up my sinews and muscles, and make me to receive the air. O Un en -em-hetep, thou Lady of the winds, I have entered into thee and I have opened--i.
Obstacles have been set before me, but I have gathered together what he hath emitted. I am in my city. O Uakh, I have entered into thee, I have eaten my bread, I have gotten the mastery over choice pieces of the flesh of oxen and of feathered fowl, and the birds of Shu have been given unto me; I follow after the gods and--I come after--the divine kas.
I array myself in apparel, and I gird myself with the sa garment of Ra; now behold,--he is--in heaven and those who dwell therein follow Ra, and--I--follow Ra in heaven.
O Unen-em-hetep, lord of the two lands, I have entered into thee, and I have plunged into the lakes of Tchesert; behold me, for all filth hath departed from me.
The Great God groweth therein, and behold, I have found--food therein--; I have. I have caught the worms and serpents, and I am delivered.
And I know the name of the god who is opposite to the goddess Tchesert, and who hath straight hair and is equipped with two horns; he reapeth, and I both plough and reap.
O Hast, I have entered in to thee, I have driven back those who would come to the turquoise--sky--, and I have followed the winds of the company of the gods.
The Great God hath given my head unto me, and he who hath bound on me my head is the Mighty one who hath turquoise? My heart watcheth, my head is equipped with the white crown, I am led into celestial regions, and I make to flourish terrestrial objects, and there is joy of heart for the.
I am the god who is the Bull, the lord of the gods, as he goeth forth from the turquoise--sky O divine nome of wheat and barley, I have come into thee, I have come forward to thee and I have taken up that which followeth me, namely the best of the libations of the company of the gods.
I have tied up my boat in the celestial lakes, I have lifted up the post at which to anchor, I have recited the prescribed words with my voice, and I have ascribed praise unto the gods who dwell in Sekhet-hetep.
Another chapter of knowing the souls of Pe. The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith:. I, even I, know though ye knoweth it not.
Then Ra said to Horus, 'Look at that black pig,' and he looked, and straightway an injury was done unto his eye,--namely--, a mighty storm--took place Then said Horus unto Ra, 'Verily, my eye seems as if it were an eye upon which Suti had inflicted a blow';--and thus saying--he ate his heart.
Then said Ra unto those gods, 'The pig is an abominable thing unto Horus; oh, but he shall do well although the pig is an abomination unto him.
Then said Horus to Ra, 'Give me two divine brethren in the. The chapter of making the transformation into a swallow. I am the scorpion, the daughter of Ra.
Hail, ye gods, whose scent is sweet; hail, ye gods, whose scent is sweet I --Hail--, Flame, which cometh forth from the horizon! Hail, thou who art in the city, I have brought the Warden of his Bight therein.
Oh, stretch out unto me thy hand so that I may be able to pass my days in the Pool of Double Fire, and let me advance with my message, for I have come with words to tell.
Oh, open--thou--the doors to me and I will declare the things which have been seen by me. Horus hath become the divine Prince.
I have made a computation of what is in the city of Sekhem, I have stretched out both my hands and arms at the word? I enter in,--I--am-judged, and--I--come forth worthy at the gate of Neb-er-tcher.
I am pure at the great place of the passage of souls, I have done away with my sins, I have put away mine offences, and I have destroyed the evil which appertained unto my members upon earth.
Hail, ye divine beings who guard the doors, make ye for me a way, for, behold, I am like unto you. I have come forth by day, I have journeyed on, on my legs, and I have gained the mastery over my footsteps--before--the God of Light, I know the hidden ways and the doors of the Sekhet-Aaru, verily I, even I, have come.
I have overthrown mine enemies upon earth, and yet my perishable body is in the gravel". If this chapter be known--by the deceased--he shall come forth by day, he shall not be turned back.
The chapter of making the transformation into a lotus. The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, saith:. I have made--my way--, and I follow on seeking for him who is Horus.
I am the pure one who cometh forth out of the Field. From the Papyrus of Paqrer--see Naville, op. I am the man that knoweth you, and I know your names among--those of--the gods, the lords of the underworld, and I am one of you.
Grant ye that--I--may see the gods who are the divine guides in the Tuat--underworld,--and grant ye unto me a place in the underworld near unto the.
Let me arrive at a habitation in the land of Tchesert, and receive me, O all ye gods, in the presence of the lords of eternity.
Grant that my soul may come forth whithersoever it pleaseth, and let it not be driven away from the presence of the great company of Gods.
The chapter of making the transformation into Ptah, of eating cakes, and of drinking ale, and of unfettering the steps, and of becoming a living being in Annu--Heliopolis.
That which is an abomination unto me, I have not eaten; filth is an abomination unto me and I have not eaten thereof, and that which is an abomination unto my ka hath not entered into my belly.
Let me, then, live upon that which the gods and the Khus decree for me; let me live and let me have power over cakes; let me eat them before the gods and the Khus--who have a favor--unto me; let me have.
Let the offering of the sacrifice, and the offering of cakes, and vessels of libations be made in Annu; let me clothe myself in the taau garment--which I shall receive--from the hand of the goddess Tait; let me stand up and let me sit down wheresoever I please.
My head is like unto that of Ra, and--when my members are--gathered together--I am--like unto Tem; the four--sides of the domain--of Ra, and the width of the earth four times.
My tongue is like unto that of Ptah and my throne is like unto that of the goddess Hathor, and I make mention of the words of Tem, my father, with my mouth.
He it is who constraineth the handmaid, the wife of Seb, and before him are bowed--all--heads, and there is fear of him.
Hymns of praise are repeated for--me--by reason of--my--mighty acts, and I am decreed to be the divine Heir of Seb, the lord of the earth, and to be the protector therein.
The god Seb refresheth me, and he maketh his risings to be mine. Chapter whei-eby a person is not devoured by the diveller in the shrine.
Chapter whereby the person is not devoured by a Serpent in the Nethenvorld. Chapter whereby the Apshait is kept back.
Chapter tvhereby the Merta Goddesses are kept back. Chapter ivhereby one liveth by the breath of air in the Nethenvorld, and keepeth back Alerta.
Chapter whereby the Serpent Rekrek is repulsed in the Netherworld. Chapter ivhereby the Eater of the Ass is kept back. Chapter whereby one avoideth the Slaughter which is carried out in the Netherworld.
Chapter whereby one hindereth the Slaughter which is wrought at Sutenhenen. Chapter ivhereby the head of a person is not severed from him in the Nethenvorld.
Chapter zvhereby one dieth not a second time. Chapter whereby one escapeth corruption in the Netherwo7-ld. Chapter whereby he that is living is not destroyed in the Netherworld.
Chapter whereby the seat of a person is not taken from him in the Nethenvorld. Chapter wlicrcby one cometh not to the divine Block of Execution.
Chapter whereby one goeth not headlong in the Netherivorld. Chapter whereby one eateth not dirt in the Nether'ivorld.
Chapter zvhereby one is not made to cat dirt, or to drink lye. Whereby one eateth not dirt. Chapter whereby air is given i?
Another Chapter whereby air is given. Another Chapter of breathing. Chapter for breathing air, and command of ivater, ift the Nethertvorld.
Chapter for breathing air and cojnmand of water. Chapter for breathing air and command of water. Chapter whereby water is drunk in the Nethenvorld. Chapter whereby one is not burnt luith fire, but drinketh water, in the Netherworld.
Chapter whereby one is not boiled in 7vater. Chapter whereby one cometJi forth by day from the Netherivorld. Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day and prevaileth over the adversaries.
Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day. Chapter whereby the doors of the Tuat are opened afid one cometh forth by day. Chapter ivhereby one cometh forth by day.
Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day and passes through the Aniniehit. Chapter ivhereby the legs are set in motion upon earth. Chapter whereby one cometh to Heliopolis and rc- ceiveth a seat there.
Chapter ivhereby all forms are assumed ivhich one pleaseth. Chipter whereby one assumeth the form of the Golden Hawk.
Chapter ivhereby otie assumeth the form of the Sacred Hawk. Chapter whereby one assiimeth the form of the Chief god of the Divine Cycle. Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the god tvho giveth Light to the Darkness.
Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the Lotus. Chapter ivhereby one assumeth the form of Ftah, eateth bread, drinketh beer, and sitteth in the midst of the great gods.
Chapter ivhereby one assumeth the form of the Bennu bird. Chapter ivhereby one assumeth the form of a Soul, that one may not come to the dungeon.
Lmperish- able is he who knoweth it. Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the Swallow. Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of Se-ta.
Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the C? Chapter whereby the Soul is united to the dead Body. Chapter whereby Memory is restored to a person.
Chapter whereby one avoideth being conveyed to the East in the Nethenvorld. Chapter whereby one prayeth for a Palette and an Inkstand.
Chapter whereby is opened the place wherein Thoth resteth. The Book ivhereby the glorified one is made strong, and is made to embark in the boat of Rd, together with those ivho are ivith the god.
Chapter of the safeguards of the Bark of Rd. Chapter whereby one entereth into the Bark of Rd. Chapte7- whereby one openeth the place where Hathor abideth.
Chapter whereby one sitteth in the midst of the great sods. Chapter whereby one propitiateth the Ka, CVI.
Chapter ivhereby a largess is presented at Hat-ka- Ptah. Chapter ivhereby one knoweth the Powers of the West.
Chapter whereby one hioweth the Powers of the East. Chapter whereby one knoweth the Powers of Fu. Chapter whereby one k? Chapter ivhereby one knoiveth the Powers of Her- mopolis.
Chapter whereby otie cometh forth into Heaven, and opeiieth the Ammehit: Chapter whereby one knoweth the Poiver of Her- mopolis.
Chapter whereby one taketh the blissful path at Restau. Chapter whereby one arriveth at Restau. Chapter zv hereby one entereth or goeth forth from Restau.
Chapter whereby one entereth into the Great House. Chapter whereby one cometh to the Divine Circle of Osiris.
The Book for invoking the gods of the Bounds, which the person reciteth luhen he appj-oachcth them, that he may etiter and see the Strong one in the Great Abode of the Tiiat.
A Book ivhereby the Soul is made to live for ever, 07i the day of enteri72g info the Bark of Rd, and to pass the Sheniu of the Tiiat.
Made on the Birthday of Osiris. Chapter whereby one proceedeth into Heaven by the side of Rd. Chapter whereby a person is enabled to go round, to visit his divelling in the Netherivorld.
Book ivherebv the deceased acquireth jnight in the Netherworld, in presence of the great cycle of tlu gods. Chapter whereby the deceased acguireth might.
Chapter whereby a Light Is kindled for a person. Chapter whereby a Light is ki7idled for a person. Chapter ivhereby 07ie is e7iabled to enter i7tto Abydos.
The Chapter of the Arrival. Chapter of the mysterious head. Chapter of building a house on earth. Chapter of coming out of the net.
Chapter of escaping from the catchers offish. Chapter of not letti? Chapter of the Tat of gold. Chapter of the buckle of carnelian, which is put on the fleck of the deceased.
Chapter of the vultjire of gold, put on the neck op the deceased. Chapter of the collar of gold, put on the neck of the deceased. Giving the colutnn of green Felspar.
Chapter of unfastening the opening in the sky. Chapter of causing a flame to arise under the head of the deceased. Chapter of landing and 1 being obscured, so that the body may prosper in drinking water.
Chapter of the Pillow. Chapter of brifigitig an Eye. Chapter of raising the funereal Bed. Chapter of causing the Chu to co?? Chapter of raisifig the Chu, of vivifying his soul in the Netherivorld.
Chapter of coming forth by day, of giving praise to Ed in the Amenta, of faying homage to the in- habitants of the Tnat, of openifig the zvay to the mighty soul in the Ahthenvorld, of letti?
Chapter of arriving before the Divine circle of Osiris and before the gods, the guides in the Tuat, before the guards of their halls, the heralds of their gates and the doorkeepers of their pylons in the Amenta, and of taking the form of a living soul and praising Osiris the lord of his circle of gods.
Book of vivifying Osiris, of giving air to him whose heart is motionless, through the action of Thoth, who repels the enemies of Osiris ivho comes there in his form.
Adoration to Osiris, giving him praise, boiving down before Unneferu, falling on one's face before the lord of Ta-tsert, and exalting him who is on his sand.
Chapter of being near Osiris. Giving praise to Osiris, falling on the earth before the lord of eternity ; propitiatifig the god with what he loves, speaking the truth, the lord of which is not known.
When, in the year , Sir Peter Le Page Renouf began the pubh'cation of his translation of the Book of the Dead, his intention was that the work, once completed, should be preceded by an elaborate Introduction, giving, besides all the information concerning the form and tlie history of the book, his views as to its sense and its religious value.
It is hardly necessary to repeat that it is no book at all in the ordinary sense of the word. It is neither a unity nor a whole, it is a collection which has grown by degrees, at various epochs.
Undoubtedly part of it goes back as far as the Old Empire ; the texts of the Middle Empire show already that there were various editions, and we are forced to admit that its origin is not much later than the beginning of Egyptian civilization, as we see that some of the rubrics attribute certain chapters to a king of the 1st dynasty.
In the course of centuries the original text was modified and enlarged, new chapters were added, revisions were made, without casting these detached fragments into a whole.
The various parts of the book were always independent, like the Hebrew Psalms ; the acceptance of a chapter does not necessarily imply the acceptance of the next chapter, and it seems as if the relatives of the deceased chose in the collection which was at their disposal what they liked best, and the number of chapters which corresponded to the price they wished to pay for a papyrus.
Under the Saite kings it seems that a complete revision of the text was made ; a definite order was adopted, which was not rigidly binding on the writers, but to which they generally adhered; various chapters were added, especially the last ones, , which are never found in the older copies.
It seems also that something like what we should call an authorized version was adopted ; and this was done by men to whom the book was ' See Introductory Note to Chapter CXL,.
A great many glosses were introduced, which were copied afterwards in all the hieroglyphic and hieratic texts.
Although we do not find the strict accuracy of Hebrew manuscripts, the number of variants in the Saite, Ptolemaic or Roman texts is considerably smaller than in the manuscripts of the Theban period, and a collation of the hundreds of papyri of late epoch which fill our museums would lead to no great result.
However, it is from a text generally considered as Saitic, but which I believe to be of the Ptolemaic epoch, that the Book of the Dead has been first made known in all its extent.
In Lepsius published the long papyrus in the Turin Museum, a document which he called " the largest piece of Egyptian literature which has been preserved.
He made use of it in his grammar, quoted here and there a sentence taken from it, but he did not make a special study of the document.
Lepsius understood at once the importance of the book, which was the vade-inecutn of the deceased, and seeing how much more extensive the Turin Papyrus was than the short copies which had been published before, he traced the whole document and published it two years afterwards.
Lepsius gave to this work the name of Todteiibuch, " Book of the Dead," in opposition to the name of " Ritual " adopted by Champollion, which is certainly incorrect.
It is no Ritual ; a few chapters with a ritualistic character have been introduced into it: On the whole the Book of the Dead differs widely from a Ritual.
It is not the priest who speaks, there are no minute prescriptions as to how a ceremony is to be performed ; all the prayers and hymns are put in the deceased's mouth, it is he whose speech is supposed to be heard in the other world.
Todtefibuch, Book of the Dead, is not a translation of the Egyptian title, which is: As Renouf says, " Three simple words, perfectly unambiguous when taken singly, but by no means easy of explanation when taken together without a context ; " and in fact at the present day no final translation has been given of these three words.
Although his numbering is not quite correct, it has been adhered to in all the subsequent editions. In his lecture- on the Book of the Dead, Renouf insists on the difificulty of translating it: In the first place, the text is extremely - See also Life Work, t.
The unsatisfactory condition of the text is owing to different causes. The reasons which writers on Hebrew, Greek or Latin palaeography have enumerated for the purpose of accounting for mistakes in manuscripts, apply with much greater force to the funereal manu- scripts of the Egyptians ; for as these were not intended to be seen by any mortal eye, but to remain for ever undisturbed in the tomb, the unconscientious scribe had no such check upon his carelessness as if his work were liable to be subjected to the constant inspection of the living.
But the most conscientious scribe might easily commit numerous errors. Many ot them are to be traced to a confusion between signs which resemble each other in the cursive, or as it is called, the hieratic character, but not in hieroglyphic writing.
There are copies which bear evidence that a critical choice has been made between the different readings of a passage, but the common practice was to admit the inconsistent readings into the text itself.
I have no doubt whatever that some of the chapters of the Book of the Dead were as obscure to Egyptians living under the eleventh dynasty as they are to our- selves The most accurate knowledge of the Egyptian vocabulary and grammar will however not suffice to pierce the obscurity arising from what M.
The difficulty is not in literally translating the text, but in understanding the meaning which lies concealed beneath familiar words.
When Renouf gave the above description of the difficulties of the translation, the main source from which he could derive his information was what he called " the corrupt Turin text.
This edition has been compiled from various papyri, as the older ones are much shorter than the later ones ; it is not a single document like Lepsius's Todtenbuch ; most of the chapters have been found in their 'old form; a few are missing, but a good number have been added to the list which have fallen out of the late versions.
Generally it is from this critical text that Renouf made his translation. Occasionally he may choose an older version from a tomb, or perhaps a papyrus of the British Museum, but he hardly ever reverts to the Turin Todtenbuch unless he has no other resonrce at his disposal.
Nevertheless the difficulties which Renouf enumerates are only partly removed. Birch's translation, " Many parts of it, where most faithful to the original, must in consequence of that very fidelity be utterly unintelligible to an English reader.
Under this extraordinary or even ridiculous garment may be hidden some very simple, or even elementary truths.
Let us remember that we have not yet unravelled all the intricacies of the Egyptian mythology, which plays such an important part in the book.
Moreover, we only begin now to understand how the Egyptians expressed abstract ideas. When we speak of passion, shame, remorse, hope, we have so thoroughly lost sight of the concrete element in these words, that we are apt to forget that originally they must have been metaphors, and that they must have expressed something striking the senses, and connected with the material world.
An instance will illustrate the difficulty in this translation. Chapter relates how, owing to an imprudent request, Horus was the victim of Sutu, who inflicted a wound on his eye, which caused him great suffering, and the text adds: However, because the work will not bear the character of finality, because some obscurities will not be removed, and some difficulties remain unsolved, there is no reason why a scholar like Renouf should have shrunk from attempting the translation of the Book of the Dead, a work which he had before his eyes for years, and which he considered as the crown of his Egyptological labours.
The lecture quoted above gives us Renouf's ideas as to the purpose and the sense of the book: The renewed existence "as upon earth. The gods themselves minister to him occasionally, and contribute to his welfare and to his pleasures.
The bliss of the future state consists chiefly in the pleasures of agricultural life. The deceased has the range of the entire universe in every shape and form he desires.
He can assume any appearance he likes. But these transformations are not forced upon him ; he has no definite series to go through ; they depend simply on his pleasure.
XXI Identification with Osiris and other gods. The identification with Osiris, which is already mentioned in the earhest parts of the book, is taken for granted later on, since the name of the deceased is always preceded by "Osiris.
This Osirian nature gives the deceased the power to triumph over the numerous enemies whom he has to face. To these three benefits which the book confers on the deceased we should add a fourth: There is evidently in some of the prayers a remembrance of a time when the deceased were dismembered at their burial ; and this way of treating the corpse is for the deceased an object of horror.
The frequent mention of reconstituting the body, the promises that no part of it shall be taken away, all this shows of what supreme importance it was for him that his body should remain intact.
Without a well preserved body there could be no life in the other world ; its destruction implies the destruction of the whole individual.
This belief is the origin of mummification, for decay is the strongest agent of dismemberment and the certain ruin of the body.
These are the outlines of the principal tenets of the Book of the Dead. If we inquire where they originated, there is no doubt that the bulk of the book came from Heliopolis.
It is the doctrine of that ancient city and of its priests. Some of the chapters may be attributed to the priests at Abydos, as M.
Maspero suggests ; but it seems certain that, except for a small part, the birthplace of the Book of the Dead is the city of Ra Tmu, the place connected with the oldest religious traditions of the country, and which may rightly be called the religious capital of Egypt.
Said upon the Day of Burial of N, the Victorious, 3 who entereth after coming forth. I am one of those gods, the 6 Powers who effect the triumph of Osiris over his adversaries on the day of the Weighing of the Words: I am thy kinsman, Osiris.
I am one of those gods to whom Nut hath given birth, who slay the adversaries of Osiris and imprison the 7 Sebau, on his behalf: I am thy kinsman, Horus.
I have fought for thee, and have prevailed for thy name. I am Thoth who effect the triumph of Osiris over his adversaries on that day of Weighing of the Words in the 8 House of the Prince, which is in Heliopolis.
I am with the mourners and weepers who wail over Osiris in 10 Rechit, and who effect the triumph of Osiris over his adver- saries.
Ra issued the mandate to Thoth, that he should effect the triumph of Osiris against his adversaries, and the mandate is what Thoth hath executed.
I am with Horus on the day of covering 11 Teshtesh and of opening the fountains for the refreshment of 12 the god whose heart is motionless, and closing the entrance to the hidden things in 13 Restau.
I am with Horus, as the avenger of that left arm of Osiris which is in 14 Sechem. I enter in, and I come forth from the 15 Tank of Flame on the day when the adversaries are annihilated at Sechem.
I am the Priest 17 in Tattu and exalt him who is on the Height. I am he who seeth what is shut up at Restau. I am the Sem-priest in all that pertaineth to his office.
I am the Arch-Craftsman, on the day in which the Ship of Sokaru is laid upon its stocks. O ye who give bread and beer to beneficent souls in the house of Osiris, do you give bread and beer at the two periods to the soul of iVwho is with you.
O ye who unclose the ways and open the roads to beneficent souls in the house of Osiris, unclose then the ways and open the roads to the soul of N who is with you, let him enter boldly and come forth in peace at the house of Osiris, without hindrance and without repulse.
Let him enter at his pleasure and go forth at his will, triumphantly with you ; and let that be executed which he shall order in the house of Osiris.
No lightness of his in the scale has been found and the Balance is 23 relieved of his case. Papyrus in the British Museum. The text taken for the basis of the translation of Chapter i is that of the papyrus of Huneferu ; Ag of M.
The title here translated is that usual in all the papyri representing the third period of the text. It occurs however in the papyrus Ag of Huneferu, who lived in the days of Seti I, at the beginning of the XlXth dynasty.
It is also found in the papyrus of Ani. Chapter bears the same title in the older manuscripts, which sometimes begin with it. These are two very difficult words, and very different meanings have been assigned to them.
But when the entire evidence is examined the result is plain enough. The 'raising up' or 'resurrection' here spoken of is said not only of the soul but of the body of the deceased person.
The papyrus of Nebseni has preserved two chapters, to which M. Naville has assigned the numbers and Chapter of raising 2ip the body, of giving it eyes a fid the possession of ears, and establishing the head, made firtn on its props.
There are numerous pictures in the tombs representing priests performing this office. Deveria has produced excellent evidence showing that ci Jiiadt-heru has the sense of ' victorious, triumphant.
Bonomi's article , and in no Egyptian text is it used of mortals supposed to be living. The translation "juste de voix," limits the conception of viadt to one of its secondary acceptations.
Nothing is more common than this particle followed only by a proper name, e. There is not the slightest reason for supposing that there is an ellipse of the verb ' saith.
Instead of looking out for moods and tenses and paradigms, Egyptologists ought to wake to the consciousness that the Egyptians never rose to the conception of what we mean by a verb.
Bull, like Lion or Hawk, was one of the figurative names of gods or kings, and Osiris is sometimes represented with a Bull's head.
This word is often wrongly translated 'judges. The sfbmi are the enemies of the Sjtn, either as Ra or Osiris. I believe that under this mythological name the dark clouds are personified.
It must be remembered however that many of the geographical localities named in the Book of the Dead have their counterparts in the Egyptian heaven.
The mourners and weepers alluded to are chiefly Isis and Nephthys. Teshtesh is one of the names of Osiris; perhaps, as might be inferred from a text at Dendera, of his molten image.
The god "whose heart is motionless" is Osiris. Its situation is specified in Chapter 17, line Letopolis, where the arm of Osiris had been de- posited, when the other limbs of the god were dispersed throughout the cities of Egypt.
The Tank of Flame, as may be inferred from the vignettes of the papyri, is where the sun rises or sets. Feast of the seventh day of the month.
It must never be forgotten when reading these texts that the Egyptian priests had divine titles, and that their ceremonies were dramatic, and symbolical of the acts performed by the gods.
The text here is hopelessly corrupt. The translation given follows Ag. One might translate the Turin text, " I lustrate with water in Tattu and with oil in Abydos, exalting him who is in the heights in excelsls ," for this text com- bines different readings.
But n as it is written, may have another meaning. Max Miiller in behalf of this reading of ihe priestly name is quite convincing. T and the causative 1 furnish the sense, 'I make bright, illustrious, glorious,' ' I celebrate or glorify.
One of the designations of Osiris. Some have cleverly inferred that the Egyptians thought that the soul was of a birdlike form, and others have not hesitated to consider ba as expressive of the cry of the ram.
The truth is that in spite of appearances the word ba is not onomatopoeic here. Whether applied to the ram or to the heron, the word is expressive of human action and signifies 'digging through, cleaving, piercing, splitting.
The Ram is called in Egyptian ba on account of the digs which he makes with his head, and a force which has occasioned the name of ' ram ' to be given to powerful engines.
And the word which we translate Soul or Spirit is called Im, because it is conceived as something which 'pierces, penetrates and divides.
The latter, who held perhaps the highest sacerdotal office in Egypt, as high priest of Ptah at Memphis, is repeatedly found combining with his own special office that of the seftt.
Sokaru signifies ' the coffined,' and Ptah Sokaru is only a form of Osiris. Abundant details of the ceremony will be found in the plates of M.
Mariette's Abydos, I, pi. The king Seti I is represented as a Sem priest presiding at the festival. Or 'rid of his business.
The deceased asks, among other things, to appear " before thee, O Lord of the gods, to attain the region of Madt, may I rise up a living god, let me shine like the divine host which is in heaven, let me be as one of you.
Let my steps be lifted up in Cher-abaut. Let the Cher-heb [the priestly ministrant] make invocation over my coffin. Let me hear the prayers of propitiation.
Let the divine ship Neshemet advance for me, let not my soul and its possessor suffer repulse. Let me be a follower of Horus in Re-stau, and of Osiris in Tattu.
And there shall be given to him bread and beer and flesh meat upon the table of Ra: Naville's edition by another, which the learned editor calls i B.
This chapter is found in so very few copies that the text cannot as yet be restored. The two texts published by M. Naville differ widely from each other.
It was known however down to the Roman period, though not inserted into copies of the Book of the Dead.
It is called Chapter of ititrodvcing the Mvmmy into the Tuat on the day of burial. The th chapter bears a similar title. The word here translated mummy is probably not to be understood of the visible mummy, but of tiie living personality which it enclosed.
I I who live upon the flesh of men and swallow their blood. The chapter finished with prayers in which the deceased identifies himself with Horus, who has taken possession of the throne which his father has given him ; he has taken possession of heaven, and inherited the earth, and neither heaven nor earth shall be taken from him, for he is Ra, the eldest of the gods.
His mother suckles him and offers him her breast, which is on the horizon at Dawn. Chapter for Coining forth by day and Living after death. Oh thou Only One, i who shinest from the Moon, let me come forth amid that train 2 of thine, at large, 3 and let me be revealed 4 as one of those in glory.
This chapter occurs in only two of the ancient MSS. I 'unicus,' the Sole and Only One, is one of the many.
Another chapter like it. Oh Tmu, who proceedest from Ur-henhenu, i who art resplen- dent as the Lion-faced, 2 and who strewest thy words to those who are before thee ; Here cometh the faithful N, from the band of those who do the bidding of thy words.
As Ra is bom from Yesterday, so he too is born from Yesterday, and as every god exulteth in life, so shall N exult even as they exult in life.
The two notions, however, are found in combination in the Pyramid texts of Unas 1. See note 8 on Chapter i.
It is I who travel on the Stream i which divideth the divine Pair, 2 I am come, let there be given to me the lands of Osiris.
This fourth chapter has not as yet been found in any of the papyri of the best period. See Chapter 61, and F.
He saith, I am he who raiseth the hand which is motionless, and I come forth at the hour. This chapter is found in several of the best MSS.
The Turin text differs greatly from that of the older copies, and the transposition of words clearly shows how little the transcribers under- stood what they were writing.
I follow chiefly the text of Aa, the papyrus of Nebseni. These words only occur in the later copies. The ' living Soul ' is that of the Sun, whether he is called Ra or Osiris.
I do not know how far it is correct to illustrate this undoubted origin of the Egyptian name for the Ape, as ' the saluting one,' by the following extract of a letter to Cuvier from M.
Duvaucelle, about the Siamang apes in the neighbourhood of Bencoolen in Sumatra. This is the morning call of the mountain Malays, but to the inhabitants of the town, who are unaccustomed to it, it is a most insupportable annoyance.
They it is who light him on both sides, and go forth in advance of him And when he arises they turn into six cynocephali.
But if the scribe had consulted the oldest texts accessible in his day, he would probably have seen another way out.
It is the technical term used in the Tablet of Canopus for the inducting, by the king, of priests into their offices.
And it is easy to see how the later text, which is already found in Ax, has been corrupted out of the older. Chapter whereby the fimereal Statuettes may be made to do ivork for a person i?
O Statuette i there! Should I be called and appointed to do any of the labours that are done in the Netherworld by a person according to his abilities, lo!
Here am I, whithersoever thou callest me. This chapter is inscribed on the funereal statuettes, of which enormous quantities are found ; sometimes by hundreds in the neighbourhood of a single mummy.
Much information on the subject, both archaeological and philological, will be found in Mariette's Catalogue General des Momunents d'Abydos, p.
Loret's articles "Les Statuettes. But there is no reason for supposing that the earlier form had the same meaning. Chapter of passing through the chine of Apepi which is void.
Oh, One of Wax, i who takest captive and seizest with violence, and livest upon those who are motionless! Let me not become motionless before thee, let me not be paralysed before thee, let not thy venoms enter into my limbs, for my limbs are the limbs of Tmu.
And if thou wouldst not be paralysed, let me not be paralysed. Let not thy languors enter these limbs of mine. I am the One who presideth over the pole of Heaven, and the powers of all the gods are my powers.
I am he, whose names are hidden, and whose abodes are mysterious for all eternity. It is I who proceed from Tmu, and I am safe and sound.
Apepi is the personification of the storm-cloud and, as such, is the enemy of Ra, by whom he is vanquished. As representing a natural phenomenon of irregular occurrence, he is not deified like Sutu, the Darkness of Night.
The chapter itself was said over a wax figure of the demon. These wax figures of gods and other personages were used not only for ritual but for unlawful magical purposes.
The Rollin papyrus reports about a criminal condemned to death for magical arts. The more recent texts omit this ending and substitute, " I know, I know.
Chapter of openmg the Tuat by day. The Hour i discloseth what the head of Thoth keepeth close, who giveth might to the Eye of Horus. I am that Osiris, the Lord of Amenta, and Osiris knoweth his day, and that it is in his lot that he should end his being, and be no more.
Stay, Horus, for he is counted among the gods. See note on Chapter 17, It must be sufficient here to say that Thoth is a personification of the moon, and that the relations of solar and lunar phenomena are the sources of a great deal of Egyptian mythology.
This is one of the most difficult passages in the Book of the Dead, but I do not see how it can be grammatically understood otherwise.
It is understood from the passage from Light to Darkness and the converse. We should think rather of such phrases as ' annum f perficere,' ' sole perfecto.
Soul most mighty, i here am I: I am come to thee that I may see thee. I am he whom he loveth. I have come to see my father Osiris, to pierce the heart of Sutu, and to perform all duties to my father Osiris.
I open all the paths in heaven and upon earth. I am the son who loveth his father, and I am come as a mummied one, glorious and well equipt.
Oh, all ye gods and goddesses, the path is made for me. The whole chapter is spoken in the person of Horus, the son of Osiris. I come forth victoriously against the adversaries.
I cleave the heaven, I open the horizon and I travel over the earth on foot. There come forward to me the Glorious and the Great ones, for I am furnished with numberless Words of Might.
I eat with my mouth, and I chew with my jaw ; for, lo, I worship the god who is Lord of the Tuat, and that is given to me which endureth amid overthrow.
Chapter for coming out against the adversary in the Netherworld. Here is the Osiris N. Eater of his arm: I have stretched out my hand, as the Lord of the Crown, and lifted my feet.
I shall not be given up ; my adversary shall fall before me ; he hath been given up to me and shall not be delivered from me.